Friday, November 8, 2013
Wednesday, November 6, 2013
Hari ini... aku tak berpuas hati dengan software autocadd kerana software autocadd ni baru hari ini boleh buka... Sebelum ni.. tak boleh buka.. aihh.. sakit hati betul!!!
Masa nak buat projek akhir dan tugasan2 yang diberi oleh pensyarah.. tak boleh guna software tersebut.. Bila cuti semester je.. bila cuba buka.. boleh pula.. aihh.. sabar je lah kan.. :)
Aku sekarang terfikir-fikir... bagaimana software tersebut boleh digunakan pada waktu sekarang.. kenapa sebelum ni tak boleh.. Ermm.. mungkin disebabkan ada software lain yang menggangunya.. atau software tersebut kena ada connection internet, baru boleh buka.. aihh.. apa2 un okay lah boleh buka.. lepas ini senang lah kerja aku... tak payah nak format bagai.. bazir duit.. kalau nak format un.. kena jumpa kawan2, minta tunjuk ajar.. :)
(Baru nak pasang niat nak format laptop ni.. dah tetiba software autocadd ni dah boleh buka.. langsung tak jadi.. huhu.. :D )
Posted by Firhan Eidzuddin at 11:15 PM
Sunday, August 11, 2013
Hari ni memikirkan tentang pelan design yang tak diterima oleh lecturer :( aihh :(
design tak jadi lagi la.. kena cancel oleh lecturer sebab skala salah.. :( aihhdugaan2.. :( sabar2 firhan.. :( be strong :)
Posted by Firhan Eidzuddin at 12:18 PM
Wednesday, July 31, 2013
Dimalam yang indah ini. Inginku tenangkan firkiranku tentang drawing niehh..
Aihh.. drawing kena reject dengan pensyarah. Pada mulanya, pelan da siap pada butter paper. Kumpulan aku buat softscape jew.. Last2, tak jadi kena buat yang lain. Setiap kumpulan kena buat 1 drawing dalam kertas A3, nasib baik kertas A3, kalau kertas A1 hohoho tak terdaya aku dengan group aku. Da la bagitahu last minute, kerja un last minute.. haihh.. dugaan2..
Jadi.. konklusinya, kenalah buat drawing yang baru.. :)
Posted by Firhan Eidzuddin at 7:22 AM
Saturday, March 2, 2013
Sabar; satu perasaan dan tindakan yang tidak dapat didefinasikan.
Ramai yang mudah berkata "sabar ye?" apabila orang lain ditimpa masalah, tapi apabila diri sendiri diuji dengan ujian yang amat dahsyat, masihkah lagi perkatan sabar dapat bertahan dalam diri?
Ayuh! kita belajar bagaimana ingin membuah sabar.
Meminjam peribahasa "lain lubuk, lain ikan" disamakan dengan "lain orang, lain ujiannya".
Setiap ujian yang ALLAH beri berbeza-beza tertakluk pada kemampuan hamba-Nya. Lupakah kita pada firmannya?
Allah tidak membebani seseorang melainkan sesuai dengan kesanggupannya. Ia mendapat pahala (dari kebajikan) yang diusahakannya dan ia mendapat siksa (dari kejahatan) yang dikerjakannya. (Mereka berdo'a): "Ya Tuhan kami, janganlah Engkau hukum kami jika kami lupa atau kami tersalah. Ya Tuhan kami, janganlah Engkau bebankan kepada kami beban yang berat sebagaimana Engkau bebankan kepada orang-orang yang sebelum kami. Ya Tuhan kami, janganlah Engkau pikulkan kepada kami apa yang tak sanggup kami memikulnya. Beri maaflah kami; ampunilah kami; dan rahmatilah kami. Engkaulah Penolong kami, maka tolonglah kami terhadap kaum yang kafir." (Surah Al-Baqarah, 286)
Lihat! Allah itu Maha Penyayang lagi Maha Pengasih, Dia tidak akan timpakan kita dengan sesuatu yang kita tak mampu. Dia juga tidak akan jadikan suatu ujian itu sia-sia tanpa ada hikmah disebaliknya.
Ujian Rasulullah S.A.W.
Kita singkap kembali sirah, baginda Nabi Muhammad s.a.w, ujian yang menimpa Baginda sangat hebat.
Bermula semasa lahir, baginda sudah kehilangan ayahnya, kemudian ibunya, datuknya, disusuli bapa saudaranya, sehinggalah isterinya yang tercinta, Siti Khadijah. Orang-orang yang baginda kasihi sudah mengadap Illahi. Ini belum lagi termasuk ujian dalam menyebarkan Islam untuk sampai kepada kita pada hari ini, bermacam-macam ujiannya. Dibaling najis, gigi baginda patah dalam satu peperangan, dipulau dan bermacam-macam lagi tekanan yang baginda hadapi.
Tapi ujian itu tidak pernah menghalang baginda supaya menjadi orang sabar.
Cuba kita renungkan kembali di zaman baginda s.a.w dahulu tiada handphone, tiada Facebook, tiada Skype dan tiada kemudahan internet seperti yang kita ada pada hari ini, tapi lihatlah kerana kecekalan, kesabaran baginda dan para sahabat, Islam sampai kepada kita hari ini.
Mungkin ada sesetengah pihak mengatakan bahawa baginda dapat menghadapi ujian-ujian tersebut kerana baginda merupakan seorang Rasul. Mengapa pula begitu? Baginda juga manusia biasa seperti kita, apa yang membezakan ialah baginda mempunyai keimanan yang benar-benar mantap.
Begitu juga dengan ujian yang baginda hadapi sesuai dengan kemampuan Baginda. Ujian yang hebat untuk manusia yang hebat! Kita bagaimana?
Bicara tentang iman
Iman itu ialah ketaqwaan kepada Allah. Jadi apabila kita ditimpa ditimpa sesuatu musibah atau ujian pintalah kepada Allah agar dikuatkan iman untuk kita hadapinya, bukan meminta dikecilkan masalah yang kita hadapi.
Kita boleh mengatasi segala ujian yang Allah berikan dengan tenang jika kita punyai pergantungan yang tinggi kepada-Nya. Oleh itu apa jua masalah yang ada, muhasabah kembali hubungan kita dengan Allah. Tanya diri kita : Adakah kita telah menjaga sebaik-baiknya hubungan kita dengan-Nya?
InsyaAllah jika kita jaga hubungan kita dengan Allah, Allah akan jaga hubungan kita dengan yang lain. Allah akan bantu kita dari segenap sudut yang kita tak sangka-sangka.
"Tapi kalau saya dah jaga hubungan dengan Allah sebaiknya, bagaimana pula?"
Jika begitu, kita perlu muhasabah kembali, mungkin tanpa kita sedari ada hak-hak dengan Allah kita tak tunaikan, begitu juga dengan hubungan sesama manusia.
Dan jika dah jaga semuanya, itulah dinamakan ujian sama ada kifarah dosa-dosa lepas atau peluang kita merebut pahala dan meningkatkan iman. Bukankah kita ini hanya manusia?
Jangan pernah lupa bahawa kita adalah hamba Allah s.w.t. Jadi, kita layak diuji kerana kita hanyalah hamba-Nya.
Jadilah hamba yang bersyukur
Apa jua yang ada dalam hidup, syukurilah, belajarlah jadi orang yang sentiasa bersyukur. InsyaAllah masalah-masalah yang kecil tidak akan timbul, dan kita akan miliki sifat sabar.
Rasulullah s.a.w, walaupun dijamin syurga tapi Baginda s.a.w, tetap menunaikan solat dan ibadah malam sampai kakinya bengkak-bengkak.
Dalam satu hadis, apabila ditanya Aisyah r.a, mengapa Baginda beribadah malam sehingga kakinya bengkak sedangkan baginda sudah dijamin syurga, Baginda menjawab dengan tenang, "Aku ingin jadi hamba yang bersyukur."
Salam mujahadah membuah sabar.
Posted by Firhan Eidzuddin at 9:00 PM
Friday, March 1, 2013
Ephemeroptera is a group of 2,000 insect species commonly known as mayflies. They are considered to be part of the clade Uniramia which includes silverfish and dragonflies, among others. Ephemeroptera and Odonata are the only extant orders of winged insects in the infraclass Paleoptera. All other insects with wings are in the Neoptera, and are characterized by a wing articulation (joint) that allows them to fold their wings back over their abdomens at rest (Carpenter, 1992).
Ephemeroptera are aquatic insects that often go through many nymph stages (living in water) and two flying stages (the subimago and the imago). They are the only insects to have two flying stages, and can be recognized by their three caudal filaments (tails) at the tip of the abdomen, and a single claw on each leg. This differentiates them from the closely related stoneflies which have two tarsal claws. The flying stages are characterized by relatively large forewings, which are usually kept upright, and reduced or nonexistent hind wings.
The first stage of the life of a mayfly is the nymph (larva), which not only looks very different from the adult, but lives in the water. When the nymphs hatch from the eggs, they are less than 1 mm long. They have no gills at first, and their body shape varies according to habitat. For example, those that burrow (such as Ephemera) have more cylindrical bodies, whereas those that slide under rocks (such as Heptagenia) are flatter. Those in the genus Caenis crawl on mossy stones and vegetation, so they have short bodies with squat legs. Ephemeroptera nymphs may grow to anywhere from 4 mm to 3 cm long. They are generally camouflaged against their background. The number of molts a nymph goes through on its way to becoming an adult does not depend on its nutrition, but the increase in size that comes with each molt does.
In older nymphs, gills are found in pairs on each segment of the abdomen (see pictures below). The gills extend from the sides of the body and are oval-shaped. These gills beat to control the flow of water through the body, which also controls the amount of oxygen and salt that flows through the body. Nymphs in still waters generally have larger gills, and those in running water have smaller gills; this allows the nymphs of each habitat to get their optimum flow of water. Not only do the gills function in uptake of water, salt, and oxygen, but they also send water off at right angles to the body. This is used to mislead predators. If the water simply flowed out the back of the nymph's body, predators would know that the nymph was sitting at the beginning of the stream. However, since they send water away from their bodies at several points, the nymphs are not as easy to track.
Some signs of sex can be seen in the last few stages of the nymph, even before it becomes an adult. At this stage, male nymphs have the beginnings of clasping organs on the lower portions of their abdomen, with which they hold the female during copulation. In some species, the males have divided eyes that are two colors. The upper portion is for seeing movement, and the lower portion is specialized for seeing details. The females have smaller eyes and oviducts in the lower abdomen.
When it comes time for the last nymph stage to molt into a subimago (the first flying stage), the guts empty out and the mid-gut section fills with air. Often, many nymphs will then simultaneously let go of their hold on their anchor in the water and float up to the top. Once they reach the air, the cuticle splits open on the thorax and the wings come out. This is the time of greatest vulnerability in their lives as they float on the water before they are strong enough to fly. The subimago has short hairs on the wings and on the body; the wings are dull and pigmented. Once it gains some strength, it flies from the water to some form of shelter such as a tree, long grass, or the underside of a bridge and molts again within 24 to 48 hours. Thisadditional molt allows the legs and tails of the insect to grow more. Longer tails give more stability in flight, and longer legs make it easier for the male to grasp the female in mating.
The imago (the final adult stage) has shiny, hairless wings. The longer legs and tails allow for more rapid flight. The corrugation of the wings protects them by making them more flexible and therefore less vulnerable to wind damage. The imago mates and dies within a few hours to a day. (Harker, 1989) This short adult life is what gives the order its name from the Greek ephemeros meaning "lasting but a day."
Mayfly nymphs : At left above, is the nymph of a Baetid mayfly, and at right is a Heptageniid nymph. Notice the Baetid has a slender, cylindrical body and small gills on its abdomen. The small gills indicate that it lives in moving water, and the shape of its body makes it well-suited for swimming against the current. The Heptageniid has a broad flat body, better suited for life clinging to the bottom of the stream to avoid being carried away by the current. Notice also that both nymphs lack the wings of the adult stage, and both have the three caudal filaments (tails) characteristic of mayflies. (Click on either of the pictures above for a larger image).
Mayfly eggs are eaten by snails and by caddisfly larvae. The nymphs may be eaten by fish, frogs, birds, flies, or water beetles. The subimagos are eaten by fish, birds, dragonflies, water beetles, or other predatory insects. For their own nutrition, mayfly nymphs move over stones and weeds to graze off bacteria. They may collect from sediments or feed on detritus. Most mayflies are collectors and scrapers (Edmunds et al, 1976), and most of the consumed bacterial cells pass through their bodies without being used. They are opportunistic generalists, meaning that they eat what they can, when they can. Nymphs have some symbiotic relationships with chironomids that may be commensal. The chironomid larvae attach to the cuticle of the mayfly and eat the unicellular organisms that live there. More harmful to mayflies are nematode parasites, who use nymphs as their hosts by eating their muscles from the inside.
Ephemeroptera nymphs are usually microhabitat specialists. Each species survives best on a specific substrate at a certain depth under water with a certain amount of wave action. For example, Rithrogena generally live in medium to large trout streams. Ephemeridae burrow into soft areas where flow is slower, or in areas of lakes and rivers where deposits occur; the particular substrate and burrow depends on the genus. The primitive habitat of schistonate mayflies is still water even though most extant mayflies live in running water (McCafferty, 1990). In some areas, succession occurs by different species. For example, in Utah Epeorus longimanus is followed by E. deceptivus. Some species dominate in the spring while others dominate in autumn (Edmunds et al, 1976). Some mayfly nymphs are quite sensitive to pollution and are used to evaluate water pollution and stream health.
Mating occurs in a swarm, and at these times there may be such dense clouds of mayflies in the air near streams that driving becomes impossible. Because their wings are so fragile, the imagos need calm weather in order to mate. Males usually swarm very near the water, though swarm formations vary from species to species. Within the swarm, the insects are always changing positions. When a female enters the swarm, males try to mate with her. Some float to the ground while mating, and others continue flying. Once a male has successfully mated, he will guard the female to make sure that no other male mates with her. The female then flies to water to lay her eggs. She dips into the water while flying and releases a few eggs each time. The eggs sink to the bottom and their surface changes. Some become covered with a sticky substance and some have adhesive disks. Some species are parthenogenic, meaning that they do not need sperm to produce fertile eggs (Harker, 1989). The time it takes for emergence into the subimago form varies depending on temperature -- the milder the temperature, the earlier the emergence (Edmunds et al, 1976). Many species have synchronized emergence of subimagos. In these cases, the emergence occurs at a specific time of day under certain weather conditions (Harker, 1989).
Mayfly Fossil Record
The first recorded mayfly nymphs are from the Late Carboniferous (Fenton, 1989). In most places, mayflies are represented primarily by larval fossils (Sinitshenkova, 1990). Presumably, this is because of the very short lifespan of the adult stage. The siphlonurid form, which is shrimp-like with short caudal filaments that have lateral hair fringes, is the primitive form (Riek, 1970). However, it is difficult to classify early fossils in the correct order. The fossil Triplosoba pulchella is the only insect from the Carboniferous that is consistently placed in the order Ephemeroptera (McCafferty, 1990).
In recent years, certain fossils found in Moravia (eastern Czech Republic) and Oklahoma (central U.S.) previously placed in the order Archodonata have been re-classified as Ephemeroptera. The Oklahoma fossils are very well preserved with the wing venation clearly shown. Hubbard and Kukalova-Peck argue that the presence of three caudal filaments, which is a plesiomorphy, and a well developed costal brace, which is a uniquely derived character of Ephemeroptera, make it impossible to place these fossils in any order other than Ephemeroptera. It has been argued that the presence of segmented tarsi double tarsal claws, traits which are not found in modern mayfly nymphs, means that the fossils were not Ephemeroptera. However, this difference merely means that changes have resulted through evolution since the origin of the group. The simple tarsi and single tarsal claw must be apomorphies, because the double claws and segmented tarsi can still be found in the closely related orders Odonata (dragonflies and Damselflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies) (Hubbard & Kukalova-Peck,1980).
Early mayfly adults differ from the Permian also differ from their living descendants. Fossil imagos of Protereisma from Kansas have functional mouthparts and fore and hind wings of similar size and shape (Carpenter, 1992). Modern mayflies do not feed as adults, and have smaller hindwings, or no hindwings at all in some species. The highest diversity of Ephemeroptera appears to have been during the Jurassic. Fossils of nine families have been found during this period.
Currently, the Ephemeroptera are classified in several different ways, depending on who does the cladistic analysis. According to Riek, this order has six superfamilies with 14 families. There are also two extinct superfamilies, Proterismatoidea and Mesephemeroidea, which are the Permian insects that appear to be mayflies or their precursors. During the lower Cretaceous, there was extinction and emigration of many mayflies in Brazil -- very few of these have survived to present day (McCafferty, 1990). The evolution from living in still-water to living in running water occurred before the Cenozoic Era (McCafferty, 1990).
Posted by Firhan Eidzuddin at 7:34 AM
Friday, January 4, 2013
Species: Z. matrella
Binomial name: Zoysia matrella
Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., commonly known as Manila Grass, is a species of mat-forming, perennial grass native to temperate coastal southeastern Asia and northern Australasia, from southern Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, and southern China (Guangdong, Hainan) south through Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines to northern Australia (northeast Queensland), and west to the Cocos Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean.
Other common names include Korean grass, Manila templegrass, siglap grass (after an area in Singapore), temple grass, Mascarene grass, harishiba, hierba Manila (Spanish), Japanese carpet, jukut kakawatan hijau (Sundanese), rebha sekem-sekeman (Madurese), burikit (on Seram), rumput siglap (Malay), damong-alat, barit-baritan (Tagalog), malakuwerdas (Pangasinan), ya-nuannoi (Thai).
Botanical synonyms include Agrostis matrella (basionym), Osterdamia matrella, Z. pungens, and Z. tenuifolia (now distinguished as Zoysia matrella var. pacifica).
Two varieties are distinguished by some authors:
· Zoysia matrella var. matrella
· Zoysia matrella var. pacifica Goudswaard
It forms extensive, velvety, green mats, spreading vigorously by stolons, or occasionally by rhizomes, once established. Z. matrella grows in low elevation preferring sandy soils where other grasses establish poorly. The stems are slender and prostrate, ranging from 5–25 cm in length. The leaves are alternate, produced at 1.5–3 cm intervals along the stem; they are slender, 2–10 cm long and 1–3 mm broad. The flowers are greenish, produced on erect racemes 6–35 mm long with a single 2-3.5 mm flower in each spikelet.
Cultivation and uses
Manila grass is grown as an ornamental grass, and is used for turf on golf courses in Asia, Europe and the Americas, as a lawn grass in the United States especially in the South, and is planted for grazing stock among the trees on tropical coconut plantations. In addition to its ability to grow on sandy soils, it tolerates high salinity, making it ideal for erosion control and lawns in coastal areas.
The variety of common names attests to its widespread occurrence in these regions along with its usefulness as a cultivated grass in diverse areas. It is naturalised in many places, as in Hawaii, and can become weedy, like many plant species with desirable horticultural characteristics.
Posted by Firhan Eidzuddin at 7:36 PM